Theory Book CBR Driving Test

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Maximum trailer weight with driver's license B

symbool van een aanhangwagen
Which driving license you need for your trailer, caravan or semi-trailer depends on the maximum permitted mass. This is the empty weight plus the maximum payload. For example, a trailer can have a maximum permissible mass of 750 kilos. If the trailer itself weighs 150 kilos (empty weight), then 600 kilos of cargo may be added (payload). These are the new rules for driving licenses (B) issued from January 19, 2013. With a driving license B you can:
  • Tow a trailer of up to 750 kilos (empty weight + load capacity).
  • Tow a trailer of more than 750 kilos if the car and the trailer together do not exceed 3.500 kilos (empty weight + load capacity).
Below are examples of some combinations. In all cases, the weight is the empty weight + load capacity. Examples that are allowed:
  • With a car of 3.000 kilos you can tow a 650 kg trailer.
  • With a car of 2.500 kilos you can tow a 900 kilo trailer.
Examples that are NOT allowed:
  • With a car of 3.000 kilos you can not tow a trailer of 850 kilos. You then need driver's license B + (code 96).
  • With a 2.500 kg car you are not allowed to tow a 2.000 kg trailer. You then need driver's license BE.
Is your trailer less than 750 kilos? Then the the car and the trailer together can weigh over 3500 kilos. Is the trailer more than 750 kilos? Then you can only drive this trailer with a driving license B if your car and the trailer do not exceed 3500 kilos.

Towing capacity

The pulling weight must not exceed the towing capacity of the towing vehicle. The maximum towing weight of your vehicle is stated on the vehicle registration certificate.
 

Trailer dimension limits

  • The maximum permitted height of a trailer is 4 metres.
  • The maximum permitted length of a trailer is 12 metres.
  • The maximum permitted length of a trailer + car is 18 metres.
  • The maximum permitted width of a trailer is 2.55 metres.

 

Breakaway cable and secondary coupling

You must use a breakaway cable or secondary coupling. These provide security in case the trailer becomes detached from your car. You must never use a break-away cable and an secondary coupling at the same time.
 

Secondary coupling

A secondary coupling is an extra connection between the trailer and the towing vehicle. If the trailer detaches from the car, the trailer remains connected with a steel cable.
  • A secondary coupling is only permitted for trailers with a maximum permitted mass of no more than 1.500 kilos.
  • A trailer without a braking system must be equipped with an secondary coupling.

 

Breakaway cable

If the trailer becomes detached when towing, the breakaway cable will snap and apply the brakes of the trailer.
  • A breakaway cable is mandatory for trailers with a maximum permissible mass of more than 1500 kilograms.

 

Trailer licence plate

  • Trailers and caravans of 750 kg and less and attachments which block the view of a number plate (such as bicycle carriers) must be provided with a white number plate from an approved supplier.
  • Trailers and caravans of more than 750 kg must have their own registration number and yellow number plate from an approved supplier.

 

Noseweight

Noseweight is the vertical pressure with which the drawbar of the trailer presses on the towbar. Load placed at the front of the trailer causes a high noseweight. Load placed at the rear of the trailer causes a low noseweight or even a negative noseweight. A noseweight that is too high causes too much load on the coupling and the rear axle of the towing vehicle. A noseweight that is too low makes the trailer unstable. The maximum allowable nose weight can be found in the technical specifications.
  • The best noseweight is close to the maximum allowable weight. This provides the most stability and the best roadholding.
  • The noseweight must not exceed the maximum allowable noseweight of the towing hook of the car and the trailer coupling.

 

Lighting

Trailers must be fitted with:
  • 2 rear lights
  • 2 brake lights
  • license plate light
  • 2 direction indicators at the rear
  • 2 red reflectors at the rear (for trailers after 31 December 1997)
  • 2 white reflectors at the front
  • 1 rear fog lamp (for trailers after 31 December 1997)
  • amber reflectors on the sides
  • 1 reversing light
  • 2 sidelights if the trailer is wider than 1.60 meters
  • 2 front end-outline marker lights (for trailers wider than 2.1 meters, after 31 December 1997)
  • side end-outline marker lights (for trailers longer than 6 meters, after 31 December 1997)

Maximum speed

The maximum speed is indicated with traffic signs and road markings. When there are multiple maximum speeds indicated, the lowest maximum speed applies.

It is not always safe to drive at the maximum speed. A driver must at all times be able to bring his vehicle to a standstill within the distance that he can see the road to be clear. Always drive with a speed with which you can stop safely within the limit of your vision.



Motorway

g1

The beginning of a motorway is indicated by sign G1.

  • Motorways always have an A number
  • 130 km / hour maximum speed (unless otherwise specified)
  • Separate carriageways
  • For motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 60 km/h
From 12 March 2020, the speed on motorways will be adjusted to 100 km / h during the day. In the evening and at night, the maximum speed remains the same on motorways where the maximum speed is 120 km / h or 130 km / h.

Traffic signs indicate the maximum speed

Because the speed limit on the motorway during the day is lower than during the night, many speed signs have a bottom plate with a time slot. For example a maximum speed of 100 km / hour from 06:00 to 19:00. Double speed signs can also be placed. For example another sign with a maximum speed of 120 km / hour from 19:00 to 06:00. If the maximum speed is not indicated, the legal maximum speed of 130 km / hour applies.


a1

These are the maximum speeds on motorways:

  • Between 06:00 and 19:00: 100 km / h (except for the 80 km / h routes)
  • Between 19:00 and 06:00: 100 km / h, 120 km / h or 130 km / h (depending on the route)
  • When the rush-hour lane is open, an adjusted speed limit applies (80 or 100 km / h).



Autoweg or expressway

g3

The beginning is indicated with sign G3.

  • 100 km / hour maximum speed outside the built-up area (unless otherwise indicated)
  • 50 km / hour maximum speed in built-up areas (unless otherwise indicated)
  • For motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 50 km/h



Inside and outside the built-up area

h1

The beginning of the built-up area is indicated with sign H1.

  • Within the built-up area a maximum speed of 50 km / hour applies for motor vehicles
  • A maximum speed of 80 km / h applies to motor vehicles on non-motorways / non-expressways outside of built-up areas



Special speed limits

If there is no lower speed limit, the following special speed limits apply to the following vehicles:

  • 100 km / h for T100 buses
  • 90 km / h for vehicles (cars, delivery vans, motorcycles, three-wheeled motor vehicles and T100 buses) towing a trailer not exceeding 3500 kg
  • 80 km / hour for lorries and buses
  • 45 km / hour for brommobielen (microcars / 4 wheeled mopeds)
  • 25 km / h for snorfietsers (low speed mopeds), agricultural vehicles and motor vehicles with limited speed



Maximum speed mopeds and invalid carriage

The maximum speeds for mopeds and invalid carriage with motor.

  • 45 km / h on the road inside and outside the built-up area
  • 40 km / h outside the built-up area on the bicycle path or the bicycle/moped path
  • 30 km / hour within the built-up area on the bicycle path or the bicycle/moped path
A speed pedelec is an electric moped  



Road marking

Based on the road markings you can divide roads into different types of roads. Outside the built-up area you can encounter three types of roads where usually the same speed limit is used.

  • 60/80 km roads do not have a line a the center of the road (60 km if there is a sign with 60)
  • 80 km roads have a double axis line
  • 100 km roads (autowegen) have a double axis line filled with green
road markings
Left to right: 100, 80, 60 km

The road markings do not change the speed limit. For example, traffic signs are more important than road markings. The road markings are intended to provide extra clarity, guidance and safety. You can use the markings as a reminder. The double axis lines ensure that you keep more distance from the oncoming traffic. There are usually no lines in the center of small roads or dyke roads. On these roads you have to drive slower and more carefully.



Following distance or headway

You must maintain a distance of approximately two seconds from the vehicle ahead. You can easily check this by choosing a point beside the vehicle in front and count how long it takes for you to reach that point.

2 seconds following distance  

 

In unfavourable (weather) conditions, two seconds is too little. On the motorway, two seconds is often excessive.



Reaction time

The reaction time is the time a driver needs to process a development in traffic (eg a stop signal) and respond to it (eg braking). A good physical and mental state have a positive influence on the reaction time.

The distance travelled in the time required to respond is called the reaction distance. Older persons sometimes need more time to respond than younger persons.

  • The reaction time of an average driver is 1 second.
  • Starting a car ride well rested has a positive influence on the reaction time.
  • Fatigue, distraction, alcohol and drugs have a negative influence on the reaction time.



Calculating​ ​the​ ​following distance

You can also calculate the two seconds distance in metres. There is an easy formula for calculating this: velocity / 2 + 10%. For example, 50 km/hr / 2 = 25. 10% of 25 is 2.5. So the result is 25 + 2.5 = 27.5 m headway   Some examples:

  • 30 km / hour: 30/2 + 10% = 16.5 metres
  • 50 km / hour: 50/2 + 10% = 27.5 metres
  • 100 km / hour: 100/2 + 10% = 55 metres
  • 130 km / hour: 130/2 + 10% = 71.5 metres    

Stopping distance

The stopping distance is the distance a vehicle travels from the moment the driver receives a signal to stop until the vehicle has come to a standstill.  

The stopping distance is the sum of the reaction distance and the braking distance.

  • The reaction distance is the distance a vehicle travels, from the moment the driver receives a signal to brake, until the moment the driver presses the brake pedal.
  • The braking distance is the distance the vehicle travels from the moment the driver presses the brake pedal, until the moment the vehicle comes to a standstill.

Reaction distance

When calculating the reaction distance, we assume a reaction time of 1 second. You only need to know how much distance is travelled by the vehicle per second.

The distance travelled per second is easy to calculate with the formula: divide the speed by 10 and multiply by 3. When driving at 50km/h, the reaction time is thus 50/10 = 5 and 5 * 3 = 15 metres.

Some examples:

  • 30 km / hour: 30/10 * 3 = 9 metres
  • 50 km / hour: 50/10 * 3 = 15 metres
  • 100 km / hour: 100/10 * 3 = 30 metres
  • 130 km / hour: 130/10 * 3 = 39 metres

Braking distance

The braking distance depends on various factors, such as the weather, the braking capacity of the vehicle, the speed and the condition of the road surface. In this calculation we assume good conditions.

One can calculate the braking distance by dividing the speed by 10, multiply it by itself and dividing that by 2. If one drives at 50 km/h, the braking distance is approximately 50/10 = 5, (multiplied by itself) 5 * 5 = 25 and (divide by 2) 25/2 = 12.5

  • 30 km / hour: 30/10 * 30/10 / 2 = 4.5 metres
  • 50 km / hour: 50/10 * 50/10 / 2 = 12.5 metres
  • 100 km / hour: 100/10 * 100/10 / 2 = 50 metres
  • 130 km / hour: 130/10 * 130/10 / 2 = 84.5 metres
When you drive twice as fast, the braking distance quadruples.    

 

Elaboration of the stopping distance

The stopping distance is the reaction distance + the braking distance. At 50 km / hour, it is thus a reaction distance of about 15 metres and a braking distance of 12.5 metres, the stopping distance is 15 + 12.5 = 27.5 metres.

Below are a few more examples:

30 km / hour

  • reaction distance: 30/10 * 3 = 9
  • braking distance: 30/10 * 30/10 / 2 = 4.5
  • stopping distance (reaction distance + braking distance): 9 + 4.5 = 13.5 metres

     50 km / hour
  • reaction distance: 50/10 * 3 = 15
  • braking distance: 50/10 * 50/10 / 2 = 12.5
  • stopping distance: 15 + 12.5 = 27.5 metres

     100 km / hour
  • reaction distance: 100/10 * 3 = 30
  • braking distance: 100/10 * 100/10 / 2 = 50
  • stopping distance: 30 + 50 = 80 metres

     130 km / hour
  • reaction distance: 130/10 * 3 = 39
  • braking distance: 130/10 * 130/10 / 2 = 84.5
  • stopping distance: 39 + 84.5 = 123.5 metres

Motorway

G1

The characteristics of a motorway.

  • The start is indicated with sign G1
  • Motorways always have an A number (like A12)
  • 130 km / hour maximum speed (unless otherwise stated)
  • Separate carriageways for the opposing directions of traffic
  • Only for motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 60 km/h
  • Motorways can also have a Europe designation with an E number (eg E30)
  • On a motorway you do not expect crossing traffic, but flyovers (such as tunnels and viaducts)

autosnelweg



Autoweg or expressway

G3

The characteristics of an autoweg.

  • The beginning is indicated with sign G3
  • 100 km / hour speed limit outside the built-up area (unless otherwise indicated)
  • 50 km / hour speed limit in built-up areas (unless otherwise indicated)
  • Only for motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 50 km/h
  • An N-way is a numbered autoweg. An N-way is usually a provincial main road
  • You can expect intersecting and joining traffic
Autoweg (expressway)



Prohibited on a motorway and autoweg

  • U-turns
  • Reversing
  • Stopping (except in a traffic jam)
  • Drivers of motor vehicles with trailers (of which the combination is longer than 7 metres) and lorries can only use the two lanes closest to the right. The regulation does not apply if they need to get in lane.



The road

A road may consist of the following sections:

  • Carriageway
  • Acceleration and deceleration lanes
  • Hard shoulders
  • Bicycle paths
  • Footpaths
  • Verges



Carriageway

The carriageway (roadway in the US) is a any part of the road specifically intended to be used by road vehicles, excluding footpaths and cycle or moped tracks.



Main carriageway

The main carriageway is the carriageway without the acceleration and deceleration lanes.



Lane

A section of the carriageway marked with a solid or broken line. A carriageway can consist of several lanes.

Number of through lanes



Hard shoulder

The hard shoulder or emergency lane is a section of the motorway or autoweg separated by a continuous white line. The emergency lane is intended for emergency use or can be made available as a rush-hour lane.



Rush-hour lane

Rush hour lane open

A rush-hour lane is a hard shoulder that can be made available for traffic when it's busy on the road. Traffic signs indicate where the rush-hour lane begins. You can only make use of these lanes if a green arrow is visible on the matrix sign above the lane. If there is a red cross above the lane, the lane is closed. When the rush-hour lane is open, you must use it as a normal lane.

When the rush-hour lane is open:

  • you must use the rush-hour lane (you must drive as far as possible on the right)
  • you can drive over the continuous line and diverging chevron marking
  • generally a lower speed limit of 100 or 80 km / hour applies
spitsstrook
Rush hour lane open



Plus lane

A plus lane is a rush-hour lane on the left side of the motorway. Plus lanes are often made by making existing lanes narrower. A plus lane is generally narrower than the other lanes.



Acceleration lane

An acceleration lane is a road section of the carriageway separated by block markings. It is intended for drivers who want to enter the main carriageway.



Deceleration lane

A deceleration lane is a section of the carriageway that is separated from the road by block markings. It is intended for drivers that wish to leave the main carriageway.



Traffic jams

If you drive on the motorway and you approach a traffic jam, you can use your hazard lights to warn the vehicles behind you.



Motorcyclists in a traffic jam

In a traffic jam, motorcyclists may drive slowly in the space between the left-most lanes. The speed difference with which the motorcyclist passes the traffic jam may not exceed 10 km / h. Take account of passing motorcyclists when you change lanes. You can give motorcyclists some extra space by moving to the right when you drive on the right lane, or to the left if you drive on the left lane.

Motorway

G1

The characteristics of a motorway.

  • The start is indicated with sign G1
  • Motorways always have an A number (like A12)
  • 130 km / hour maximum speed (unless otherwise stated)
  • Separate carriageways for the opposing directions of traffic
  • Only for motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 60 km/h
  • Motorways can also have a Europe designation with an E number (eg E30)
  • On a motorway you do not expect crossing traffic, but flyovers (such as tunnels and viaducts)

autosnelweg



Autoweg or expressway

G3

The characteristics of an autoweg.

  • The beginning is indicated with sign G3
  • 100 km / hour speed limit outside the built-up area (unless otherwise indicated)
  • 50 km / hour speed limit in built-up areas (unless otherwise indicated)
  • Only for motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 50 km/h
  • An N-way is a numbered autoweg. An N-way is usually a provincial main road
  • You can expect intersecting and joining traffic
Autoweg (expressway)



Prohibited on a motorway and autoweg

  • U-turns
  • Reversing
  • Stopping (except in a traffic jam)
  • Drivers of motor vehicles with trailers (of which the combination is longer than 7 metres) and lorries can only use the two lanes closest to the right. The regulation does not apply if they need to get in lane.



The road

A road may consist of the following sections:

  • Carriageway
  • Acceleration and deceleration lanes
  • Hard shoulders
  • Bicycle paths
  • Footpaths
  • Verges



Carriageway

The carriageway (roadway in the US) is a any part of the road specifically intended to be used by road vehicles, excluding footpaths and cycle or moped tracks.



Main carriageway

The main carriageway is the carriageway without the acceleration and deceleration lanes.



Lane

A section of the carriageway marked with a solid or broken line. A carriageway can consist of several lanes.

Number of through lanes



Hard shoulder

The hard shoulder or emergency lane is a section of the motorway or autoweg separated by a continuous white line. The emergency lane is intended for emergency use or can be made available as a rush-hour lane.



Rush-hour lane

Rush hour lane open

A rush-hour lane is a hard shoulder that can be made available for traffic when it's busy on the road. Traffic signs indicate where the rush-hour lane begins. You can only make use of these lanes if a green arrow is visible on the matrix sign above the lane. If there is a red cross above the lane, the lane is closed. When the rush-hour lane is open, you must use it as a normal lane.

When the rush-hour lane is open:

  • you must use the rush-hour lane (you must drive as far as possible on the right)
  • you can drive over the continuous line and diverging chevron marking
  • generally a lower speed limit of 100 or 80 km / hour applies
spitsstrook
Rush hour lane open



Plus lane

A plus lane is a rush-hour lane on the left side of the motorway. Plus lanes are often made by making existing lanes narrower. A plus lane is generally narrower than the other lanes.



Acceleration lane

An acceleration lane is a road section of the carriageway separated by block markings. It is intended for drivers who want to enter the main carriageway.



Deceleration lane

A deceleration lane is a section of the carriageway that is separated from the road by block markings. It is intended for drivers that wish to leave the main carriageway.



Traffic jams

If you drive on the motorway and you approach a traffic jam, you can use your hazard lights to warn the vehicles behind you.



Motorcyclists in a traffic jam

In a traffic jam, motorcyclists may drive slowly in the space between the left-most lanes. The speed difference with which the motorcyclist passes the traffic jam may not exceed 10 km / h. Take account of passing motorcyclists when you change lanes. You can give motorcyclists some extra space by moving to the right when you drive on the right lane, or to the left if you drive on the left lane.

Motorway

G1

The characteristics of a motorway.

  • The start is indicated with sign G1
  • Motorways always have an A number (like A12)
  • 130 km / hour maximum speed (unless otherwise stated)
  • Separate carriageways for the opposing directions of traffic
  • Only for motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 60 km/h
  • Motorways can also have a Europe designation with an E number (eg E30)
  • On a motorway you do not expect crossing traffic, but flyovers (such as tunnels and viaducts)

autosnelweg



Autoweg or expressway

G3

The characteristics of an autoweg.

  • The beginning is indicated with sign G3
  • 100 km / hour speed limit outside the built-up area (unless otherwise indicated)
  • 50 km / hour speed limit in built-up areas (unless otherwise indicated)
  • Only for motor vehicles capable of being driven at speeds greater than 50 km/h
  • An N-way is a numbered autoweg. An N-way is usually a provincial main road
  • You can expect intersecting and joining traffic
Autoweg (expressway)



Prohibited on a motorway and autoweg

  • U-turns
  • Reversing
  • Stopping (except in a traffic jam)
  • Drivers of motor vehicles with trailers (of which the combination is longer than 7 metres) and lorries can only use the two lanes closest to the right. The regulation does not apply if they need to get in lane.



The road

A road may consist of the following sections:

  • Carriageway
  • Acceleration and deceleration lanes
  • Hard shoulders
  • Bicycle paths
  • Footpaths
  • Verges



Carriageway

The carriageway (roadway in the US) is a any part of the road specifically intended to be used by road vehicles, excluding footpaths and cycle or moped tracks.



Main carriageway

The main carriageway is the carriageway without the acceleration and deceleration lanes.



Lane

A section of the carriageway marked with a solid or broken line. A carriageway can consist of several lanes.

Number of through lanes



Hard shoulder

The hard shoulder or emergency lane is a section of the motorway or autoweg separated by a continuous white line. The emergency lane is intended for emergency use or can be made available as a rush-hour lane.



Rush-hour lane

Rush hour lane open

A rush-hour lane is a hard shoulder that can be made available for traffic when it's busy on the road. Traffic signs indicate where the rush-hour lane begins. You can only make use of these lanes if a green arrow is visible on the matrix sign above the lane. If there is a red cross above the lane, the lane is closed. When the rush-hour lane is open, you must use it as a normal lane.

When the rush-hour lane is open:

  • you must use the rush-hour lane (you must drive as far as possible on the right)
  • you can drive over the continuous line and diverging chevron marking
  • generally a lower speed limit of 100 or 80 km / hour applies
spitsstrook
Rush hour lane open



Plus lane

A plus lane is a rush-hour lane on the left side of the motorway. Plus lanes are often made by making existing lanes narrower. A plus lane is generally narrower than the other lanes.



Acceleration lane

An acceleration lane is a road section of the carriageway separated by block markings. It is intended for drivers who want to enter the main carriageway.



Deceleration lane

A deceleration lane is a section of the carriageway that is separated from the road by block markings. It is intended for drivers that wish to leave the main carriageway.



Traffic jams

If you drive on the motorway and you approach a traffic jam, you can use your hazard lights to warn the vehicles behind you.



Motorcyclists in a traffic jam

In a traffic jam, motorcyclists may drive slowly in the space between the left-most lanes. The speed difference with which the motorcyclist passes the traffic jam may not exceed 10 km / h. Take account of passing motorcyclists when you change lanes. You can give motorcyclists some extra space by moving to the right when you drive on the right lane, or to the left if you drive on the left lane.

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